This book thoroughly investigates 16 off-grid toilet systems that have been implemented across the world, to provide a comprehensive understanding of their functional principles. Through comparison and evaluation, we provide recommendations on how users’ needs can be better met and how contextual conditions can be better considered. We hope this book will be a valuable tool for governments, NGOs and communities to tackle the problems of unsafe sanitation across the globe.
Principal Investigator and Project Coordination: Dr Paco Mejias Villatoro, Co-Investigators: Dr Junjie Xi and Dr Tanzil Shafique.
Research Assistants: Mr Fahim Hasan Rezve, Ms Wasila Fatima Nilia, Mr Sayem Anwar Tuhin, Ms Sumaiya Ara Simi, Mr Ashfak Ullah Chowdhury and Mr Zhangze Shao:
Additional Contributors: Dr Khairul Islam, Regional Director of WaterAid South Asia; Vanita Suneja, former Regional Advocacy Manager and Regional Communication, WaterAid; Mr Faysal Abbas, Advocacy Manager (interim), Water Aid; Pr. Adnan Z Morshed, Executive Director of the Center of Inclusive Architecture and Urbanism, BRAC University.
This publication has been possible thanks to the Spanish Cooperation through the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID), The University of Liverpool and WaterAid Bangladesh. The content of the book does not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of AECID, University of Liverpool or WaterAid Bangladesh.